Defining Properties Arithmetically (part 1): Gödel and Primitive Recursion

Feb 11 2013 Published by under Incompleteness

When I left off, we'd seen how to take statements written in the logic of the Principia Mathematica, and convert them into numerical form. What we need to see now is how to get meta-mathematical.

We want to be able to write second-order logical statements. The basic trick to incompleteness is that we're going to use the numerical encoding of statements to say that a predicate or relation is represented by a number. Then we're going to write predicates about predicates by defining predicates on the numerical representations of the first-order predicates. That's going to let us create a true statement in the logic that can't be proven with the logic.

To do that, we need to figure out how to take our statements and relations represented as numbers, and express properties of those statements and relations in terms of arithmetic. To do that, we need to define just what it means to express something arithmetically. Gödel did that by defining "arithmetically" in terms of a concept called primitive recursion.

I learned about primitive recursion when I studied computational complexity. Nowadays, it's seen as part of theoretical computer science. The idea, as we express it in modern terms, is that there are many different classes of computable functions. Primitive recursion is one of the basic complexity classes. You don't need a Turing machine to compute primitive recursive functions - they're a simpler class.

The easiest way to understand primitive recursion is that it's what you get in a programming language with integer arithmetic, and simple for-loops. The only way you can iterate is by repeating things a bounded number of times. Primitive recursion has a lot of interesting properties: the two key ones for our purposes here are: number theoretic proofs are primitive recursive, and every computation of a primitive recursive function is guaranteed to complete within a bounded amount of time.

The formal definition of primitive recursion, the way that Gödel wrote it, is quite a bit more complex than that. But it means the same thing.

We start with what it means to define a formula via primitive recursion. (Note the language that I used there: I'm not explaining what it means for a function to be primitive recursive; I'm explaining what it means to be defined via primitive recursion.) And I'm defining formulae, not functions. In Gödel's proof, we're always focused on numerical reasoning, so we're not going to talk about programs or algorithms, we're going to about the definition of formulae.

A formula \phi(x_1, x_2, ..., x_n) is defined via primitive recursion if, for some other formulae \psi and \mu:

  • Base: \phi(0, x_2, ..., x_n) = \psi(x_2, ..., x_n)
  • Recursive: \phi(i+1, x_2, ..., x_n) = \mu(i, \phi(i, x_2, ..., x_n), x_2, ..., x_n).

So, basically, the first parameter is a bound on the number of times that \phi can invoked recursively. When it's 0, you can't invoke \phi any more.

A formula is primitive recursive if it defined from a collection of formulae \phi_1, ..., \phi_n where any formula \phi_i is defined via primitive recursion from \phi_1, ..., \phi_{i-1}, or the primitive succ function from Peano arithmetic.

For any formula \phi_i in that sequence, the degree of the formula is the number of other primitive recursive formulae used in its definition.

Now, we can define a primitive recursive property: R(x_1, ..., x_n) is primitive recursive if and only if there exists a primitive recursive function \phi such that \phi(x_1, ..., x_n) = 0.

With primitive recursive formulae and relations defined, there's a bunch of theorems about how you can compose primitive recursive formulae and relations:

  1. Every function or relation that you get by substituting a primitive recursive function for a variable in a primitive recursive function/relation is primitive recursive.
  2. If R and S are primitive relations, then ¬R, R∧S, R∨S are all primitive recursive.
  3. If \phi(x_1, ..., x_n) and \psi(x_1, ..., x_n) are primitive recursive functions, then the relation R(x_1, ..., x_n) \Leftrightarrow (\phi(x_1, ..., x_n) = \psi(x_1, ..., x_n) is also primitive recursive.
  4. Let xv and zv be finite-length tuples of variables. If the function \phi(xv) and the relation R(y, zv) are primitive recursive, then so are the relations:
    • S(xv, zv) \Leftrightarrow  (\exists y \le \phi(xv). R(y, zv))
    • T(xv, zv) \Leftrightarrow  (\forall y \le A(xv). R(y, zv))
  5. Let xv and zv be finite-length tuples of variables. And let \text{argmin}[y \le f(x).R(x)] be the smallest value of x for which y \le f(x) and R(x) is true, or 0 if there is no such value. Then if the function \phi(xv) and the relation R(y, zv) are primitive recursive, then so is the function P(xv, zv) = (\text{argmin}[y \le A(xv). R(y, zv))].

By these definitions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and integer division are all primitive recursive.

Ok. So, now we've got all of that out of the way. It's painful, but it's important. What we've done is come up with a good formal description of what it means for something to be an arithmetic property: if we can write it as a primitive recursive relation or formula, it's arithmetic.

So now, finally, we're ready to get to the really good part! Now that we know what it means to define something arithmetically, we can see how to define meta-mathematical properties and formulae arithmetically. Next post, hopefully tomorrow, I'll start showing you arithmetic expressions of meta-math!

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